Observation of Methylene Blue-stained Cheek Cells using Foldscope

Human cheek cells can be observed under a microscope after staining with methylene blue dye. Since methylene blue (cationic in nature) binds with DNA and RNA (anionic in nature) by electrostatic means, it gives a darker blue color to nucleic materials as represented in the image given below. This procedure and foldscopic exercise can be…

Observation of Stained Blood Smear Using Foldscope

The blood smear was stained with Leishman stain and observed under the foldscope thereafter. The Leishman stain consists of two chemical groups, i.e. Azure B (basic dye) and Eosin Y (acidic dye). The erythrocytes stain pink in color due to Eosin Y as hemoglobin is eosinophilic (acidophilic), whereas the Azure B is a cationic dye…

Rotifers: Beating of their Ciliary Crown, Feeding and Locomotory Behaviour through Foldscope

Rotifers, also called wheel-animalcules, are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that constitute the phylum Rotifera and found in aquatic environments all around the world The name Rotifer comes from the Latin words “wheel bearers” because the circular arrangement of moving cilia (tiny hairlike structures) at the front end resembles a rotating wheel. The cilia on the corona beat to create a…

Microscopic Characterization of Salt-Stress Induced Cell Death in the Unicellular Green Algae Chlorella vulgaris

Salt-stress induced cell death in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris was investigated by incubating the algae cells with high salinity NaCl solution (150 mM) which typically causes cell damage or cell-death due to the osmotic potential which affects the permeability of the plasmalemma, cell growth and metabolic rate of the algae cells. The damaged cells can be characterized…