In November we ran a ‘disease diagnostics’ session here in the teaching lab at LSHTM, and local school students came in to learn about diagnostics and view specimens – via Foldscopes! We discussed malaria and the Oriental liver fluke (Chlonorchis sinensis), then the students folded their Foldscopes and looked at the sections: we had malaria-infected brain (Plasmodium falciparum), with signs of micro-hemorrhaging and parasite pigment, as well as the liver sections. These are some of the pictures taken!
Foldscope number: 0001CFC71A56, liver fluke: the two small circles on either side (that look like eyes) are the two intestinal branches (diagnostic for Chlonorchis sinensis). The fluke is in a bile duct, this may be two flukes or one that is folded in two. The bile duct around it is enlarged and with inflammatory cells.
Foldscope number: 0001 493B B5C5, close-up of detail on a liver fluke, then two brain images; the first showing hemorrhaging (red areas in the amorphous pink tissue [brain]), the second focused on a blood vessel, with dark malaria pigment inside the vessel. This is caused by schizonts – one of the stages of Plasmodium’s asexual replication – lodging in the vessels and causing blockages, leading to the characteristic pathology of cerebral malaria. The dark pigment is a waste product of the parasites, and is derived from haemoglobin.
Foldscope number: 0001 576CAAEF, liver fluke as above, with zoom in on area of liver section with many inflammatory cells.
Foldscope number: 0001 9BEA 448C, malaria brain: haemorrhaging and pigment clearly visible in pinkish area in the centre
More photos from the day to follow!