Tutorial on Spore prints of mushrooms

Spore prints – These are made by the many microscopic spores falling from the mushroom, leaving a photographic impression. Significance – Each mushroom forms a characteristic pattern, so useful in identification and also a source of obtaining clean and homogenous spores for mushroom cultivation. Methodology: Pick out a mature mushroom Remove the stem so that…

Spoilage of dairy products

Milk cream samples obtained from a dairy showed fungal growth. On foldscoping the sample, sporangia were observed on long sporangiophores. The fungal hyphae had grown extensively to form a mat- like structure. Is it a fungal biofilm ? This post is open to read and review on The Winnower.

Moldy growth on carrot during storage

Post-harvest losses of vegetables and fruits due to fungal growth during storage lead to heavy losses to farmers financially. I collected a sample of carrot from vegetable market which had fungal growth on it. On observing through a foldscope, I could make out black moldy growth and interwoven hyphae. This post is open to read…

Mushroom spores

Mushroom spores are one-celled, reproductive units. Spores are different in size, shape, and color, so act as an important  identification feature for  a species of mushroom. I went for a nature walk and seen some wild mushrooms I prepared a slide and Foldscoped it. observed spores-these are one-celled, reproductive units -capable of germinating into mycelium, under…

Stomata under foldscope

leaf  peel was stained with safranin  for 30 sec and then observed under the foldscope and we were able to see the stomata cells.

Onion peel

Onion peel was stained with safranin  for 30 sec and then observed under the foldscope and we were able to see the cells.

Unidentified disease on Duranta

The Duranta hedge growing in my garden is lately showing diseased symptoms. Its leaves are curled at margins and puckered. Observing these regions under foldscope revealed hypertrophy. Cellular masses were seen in these hypertrophied regions. The cause of these symptoms is not clear. This post is open to read and review on The Winnower.

Stomatal arrangement in Bryophyllum

Bryophyllum pinnatum commonly known as Patharchatta. But  few other common names are Miracle Leaf,  air plant, cathedral bells, Goethe plant. It belongs to family Crassulaceae. It  has many medicinal properties.  I just plucked one leaf from the potted plant and removed a part of the peel from the leaf and foldscoped it.      

Pollen of a fodder bean under foldscope

Dolichos lablab is an important fodder crop and highly nutritious as rich in proteins. The pollen grains were isolated from mature flowers and observed under foldscope. This post is open to read and review on The Winnower.

Wild plants of Chandigarh – Specimen 2 (Hyacinth bean )

Wild plants of Chandigarh – Specimen 2 (Hyacinth bean ) Botanical name – Dolichos lablab) Family – Fabaceae Collection site – Sec-47, Chandigarh Habitat – Wild Habit – Climber near dumping ground             Leaf – Compound, trifoliate Inflorescence – Raceme Flower – Bisexual, zygomorphic, polypetalous, didynamus (1+9), papilionaceous  corolla, creamish-white in …

Feathery style, stigma and pollination drop of Lablab

The pistil of Lablab – the flat bean flower was seen to have feathery style, and a capitate stigma under a foldscope. A pollination drop on stigma was a treat to watch under foldscope.   This post is open to read and review on The Winnower.

Observation of fungal spores on tea leaf

Observation of fungal spores on tea leaf: Wetted tea leaves were kept in a Petri dish and were incubated in a moist chamber for several days till the fungus growth was observed.  The fungus was then stained with lacto phenol cotton blue and observed under both foldscope and microscope. Fig. below :A, B, C- foldscope,…

Observation of the pigmentation pattern in leaves

Observation of the pigmentation pattern in the Croton leaf and yellow tabebuia flower: The surface of a leaf of croton plant/petal of the yellow tabebuia flower was scrapped and observed under foldscope without any staining.     .  

Observation of stomata of onion peel and bulb

 The epidermal cells of an onion act as a protective barrier against the microbes. A layer of the epidermal cells were peeled from an onion bulb and leaf was examined as follows: The inner transparent lining of an onion bulb was peeled. A small layer of the peeled onion was transferred to a watch glass…

Osazone crystals of sugars

Osazone crystals of Glucose, Galactose, Maltose, and sucrose were observed under foldscope and foldscope and microscope. The osazone test involves the reaction of reducing sugars and phenylhydrazine in boiling temperatures resulting in the formation of osazone crystals. This test is specific for a given reducing sugar and is an identification test routinely done in Biochemistry. .   ….

Spoilage molds growing on walls

Do molds spoil only foods? No they also are a nuisance on walls. Moldy growth on a wall shows greenish cotton-like growth. On analyzing it under a foldscope, it was seen to be Aspergillus. Samriti Dhawan & Jasveen Dua (GGDSD College, Chandigarh) This post is open to read and review on The Winnower.

Fungus within an apple core

 On cutting an apple, i saw a fuzzy white fungus in the central core region of the apple. I took a sample and fixed it on a slide to look under a foldscope. It was a weft of fungal hyphae. I tried to locate the spores, but in vain. The entire apple other-wise had no…