Ferric chloride

College – CMR National PU college Name – Bhumika C Item – Ferric Chloride Description – Ferric chloride is deliquiscent. Viewed under the foldscope we could observe it melting and see the patterns emerging. It seemed like an eye and that fascinated all of us in the lab.

Observation of fat droplets in milk

Observed a commercial sample of milk at GGDSD COLLEGE, Chandigarh with varied fat content of 6%,4.5% and 1.5%.Variations in the aggregation of fat droplets was observed such that milk with highest fat content i. e 6% showed highest degree of aggregation of fat droplets followed by milk with fat content of 4.5% and least degree…

Monosodium glutamate crystals

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is responsible for the umami or “savoury” taste of many of our foods. I was able to buy a tiny amount at a bulk food store for only a few pennies….can’t recall the last time I bought something so interesting for only a few pennies!

Raw Honey – polarizing light clip

Raw Honey often contains pollen and tiny bits of beeswax. I think the structure at about 4 o’clock maybe wax, but am not sure if I can say so confidently. As you watch the clip under polarized light, you can see the sugar (primarily glucose and fructose) crystals shimmering. Ambient room temperature is quite high…

Raw Honey (Unpasteurized)

Raw Honey plane polarized light.  You can see some of the crystalline structure of the sugars here.  

Methotrexate – short movie clip with polarizers

Here is a short clip of the Methotrexate crystals under polarizing filters.  Methotrexate was one of the first chemotherapeutic agents (and still used), and was discovered by Yellapragada Subbarao, who also had major contributions in elucidating the role of ATP and earliest antibiotics.

More Potash

Here is a short polarized film of potash which contains a number of potassium compounds. You can see the birefringent potassium nitrate crystals.


Here is Potash with polarized light and you can see the birefringent KNO3.

Egg White

Chicken egg is the best source of protein, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Eggs consist of 3 main components: eggshell, egg white, and yolk. Albumen commonly known as egg white is rich in proteins. Albumen color is opalescent and doesn’t appear white until an egg is whipped or cooked. Egg whites are a low-calorie food containing…

A chipped human nail

My sister has the habit of nail biting. I took a chip of her nail to look under the foldscope.  I was confused to see the type of cells. Was it deposition of keratin or something else? To have a clear view, I stained it with safranine. I am sure after looking at these pictures…

Ginger peel and fibres under foldscope

Ginger – an ingredient of every Indian kitchen is botanically a rhizome ( an underground stem). The stem has distinct nodes and internodes. Many numerous fibres were present which were stained with safranine prior to foldscopy. Under the foldscope the cells of the peel were parenchymatous and seen filled with numerous starch grains, while the…

Table sugar with polarizers

For this, I mixed regular table sugar with tap water and let it air dry.  Then observed this at the edge.

Cashew peel under foldscope

I am excited to share my foldscope click of cashew peel. Can anybody guide what is being viewed as I am unable to make out these beautiful stripes. I simply know that cashew are a rich source of fats and a few vitamins. In autumn break I had been to Goa on the college trip…

Are these Spirogyra and Rotifer?

These green structures were growing on mud. What are the chances that this is a species of Spirogyra? Looking at this, it seemed like sexual reproduction was going to occur… And its cell wall shows birefringence!   Lurking in these algal jungle was a creature strange. It was a rare sight that I could get…

Crystals view through Foldscope

With instruction from my mentor Dr Pebam Munindro Singh, I started my trial observation of some crystals with Foldscope. It’s beautiful, exciting, thrilling and taken into the world of curiosity.

Hyaluronic Acid dried on slide

I put a drop of a Hyaluronic acid solution on the slide.  I didn’t see anything with brightfield/polarizing microscopy.  I looked at it again 2 days after it had dried, with one polarizing filter, then both and finally with polarizing filters and a “frugal” compensator (the coverslide in our Foldscope kits).

freezing water

need to watch closely to see freezing of water. using foldscope- placed drop of water on glass slide. used freezer in fridge for freezing water. captured it immediately.

common salt and sugar under foldscope.

              common salt                 sugar foldscope  can be used in studying crystalline structures. definitely a study tool for students

Capillary action occuring on paper

One thing we often do while preparing any wet mount is removing excess of mounting medium; mainly by making use of blotting paper. Wondered how blotting paper takes up the excess medium so quickly? A phenomenon called capillary action comes into play. Blotting paper consists of several hydrophilic substances and water (most common mounting media)…