Study of dicot leaf stomata and phenomenon of plasmolysis under foldscope

College name : CMR National PU College ITPL Bangalore Students : I PU Item viewed : Rheo leaf section Description: Students of I PU studied the structure of stomata from Rheo leaf and phenomenon of plasmolysis under foldscope today. A temporary slide with Rheo leaf section was observed under foldscope. Stomata with bean shaped guard…


A. Potassium dichromate B. Potassium chromate


皆さんこんばんは! 今日はウェビナーの参加者の皆さんと一緒にフォールドスコープでおもいおもいのサンプルを観察しました。 私は結晶の形を観察してみたかったので、食用塩を2種類用意しました。 フランスのゲラント塩 イタリアのシチリア産塩 サンプルは、紙のスライドとテープで用意しました。 撮影はiPhone6です。 写真は何も加工していません。デジタルズームも使っていません。 —-


Croton plants of this genus were described and introduced to Europeans by Georg Eberhard Rumphius. The common names for this genus are rushfoil and croton, but the latter also refers to Codiaeum variegatum. The generic name comes from the Greek κρότος (krótos), which means “tick” and refers to the shape of the seeds of certain…

Magnesium Sulphate – Polarizing movie

For a few pennies, I was able to get some Epsom salts. I added water and let it dry on the slide and then viewed with polarizing filters. Magnesium sulfate is used medically for certain cardiac rhythm problems (Torsades des points), severe asthma, and in certain cases to protect baby when mother enters labor early….

Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom Salt) crystals.

Magnesium sulfate is used medically for certain cardiac rhythm problems (Torsades des points), severe asthma, and in certain cases to protect baby when mother enters labor early. It is also called Epsom salts and used for soaking and skin healing.

Serendipitous Dance of Polarizing Crystals – MgSO4

For a few pennies, I was able to get some Magnesium sulphate. I mixed in water and allowed it to dry on the slide. I thought it had dried, but when I looked at the clip I realized there was a drop of water (at about 7 seconds into the clip) at the top of…

MorphoAnatomical and Histochemical Studies of Pteridophytes using Foldscope

Histochemical Studies on Adiantum raddianum Histochemical Studies on Pteris vittata Histochemical Studies on Cheilanthes swartzii Histochemical Studies on Cheilanthes viridis Histochemical Studies on Nephrolepis exaltata Histochemical Studies on Hemionitis arifolia Histochemical Studies on Microlepia speluncae Histochemical Studies on Psilotum nudum Histochemical studies on Phymatosorus nigrescens

Ferric chloride

College – CMR National PU college Name – Bhumika C Item – Ferric Chloride Description – Ferric chloride is deliquiscent. Viewed under the foldscope we could observe it melting and see the patterns emerging. It seemed like an eye and that fascinated all of us in the lab.

Observation of fat droplets in milk

Observed a commercial sample of milk at GGDSD COLLEGE, Chandigarh with varied fat content of 6%,4.5% and 1.5%.Variations in the aggregation of fat droplets was observed such that milk with highest fat content i. e 6% showed highest degree of aggregation of fat droplets followed by milk with fat content of 4.5% and least degree…

Monosodium glutamate crystals

Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is responsible for the umami or “savoury” taste of many of our foods. I was able to buy a tiny amount at a bulk food store for only a few pennies….can’t recall the last time I bought something so interesting for only a few pennies!

Raw Honey – polarizing light clip

Raw Honey often contains pollen and tiny bits of beeswax. I think the structure at about 4 o’clock maybe wax, but am not sure if I can say so confidently. As you watch the clip under polarized light, you can see the sugar (primarily glucose and fructose) crystals shimmering. Ambient room temperature is quite high…

Raw Honey (Unpasteurized)

Raw Honey plane polarized light.  You can see some of the crystalline structure of the sugars here.  

Methotrexate – short movie clip with polarizers

Here is a short clip of the Methotrexate crystals under polarizing filters.  Methotrexate was one of the first chemotherapeutic agents (and still used), and was discovered by Yellapragada Subbarao, who also had major contributions in elucidating the role of ATP and earliest antibiotics.

More Potash

Here is a short polarized film of potash which contains a number of potassium compounds. You can see the birefringent potassium nitrate crystals.


Here is Potash with polarized light and you can see the birefringent KNO3.

Egg White

Chicken egg is the best source of protein, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Eggs consist of 3 main components: eggshell, egg white, and yolk. Albumen commonly known as egg white is rich in proteins. Albumen color is opalescent and doesn’t appear white until an egg is whipped or cooked. Egg whites are a low-calorie food containing…